疫病菌生物學研究室

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1.在生物界,第一個完成把分離出來 的粒線體(mitochondria),轉殖到另一個細胞內,並且在新的細胞內繁殖,表現遺傳特性。生物的遺傳基因,除了存在於細胞核,也存在於粒線體。 後者主管能量的產生。以前未有粒線體轉殖的報告,因為不易獲得粒線體的標記(marker)。後來我們發現疫病菌(Phytophthora) 對鏈黴素及綠黴素的抗性遺傳基因存在於粒線體,利用這些標記,我們終於成功完成粒線體的轉殖,轉殖的粒線體,在新的細胞內繁殖,並表現其遺傳特性。此技 術,將來可應用於食用及藥用菌的菌種改良,甚至高等植物的品種改良上。(已發表於Can. J. Microbiol.)。

2.在植物界,第一個完成不同種之間 的細胞核轉殖。以前我們發現疫病菌對殺菌劑metalaxyl 同chloroneb 的抗性遺傳基因,均存在於細胞核。利用這些標記我們成功的把Phytophthora capsici 的細胞核轉殖到P. capsici 的原生質體內。所再生的菌株,均帶有這兩個種的特性。這表示將來 可以利用細胞核的轉殖,把不同種的特性,應用於品種改良上。(已發表於Can. J. Microbiol.)。

3.發現產生雜種優勢的新方法,以及 形成雜種優勢的原理。將疫病菌(Phytophthora parasitica)的細胞核,轉殖到同種但不同株系的原生質體 (protoplast)內,再生的菌株,所形成的菌落,比原來的父母本菌落大一倍以上。同一對菌株,做粒線體轉殖,或原生質體融合,其再生的菌株,都沒 有這種生長優勢。這表示雜種優勢的形成,是兩種不同來源之細胞核的交互作用的結果。也表示異類粒線體的存在會抑制生長優勢的表現。這種新的產生雜種優勢的 方法,將來可應用於菌種及農作物產量的提升。這種技術的特色是可突破交配不親合性的障礙。(已發表於Can. J. Microbiol.)。

4.發現用食用油來防治白粉病的方 法。白粉病菌能為害許多作物,為世界性的病害,也是防治上使用最多農藥的病害。我們發現把用10% Tween 80 或無患子露乳化過的葵花油,稀釋200 倍後,噴在作物葉上,可以非常有效的防治白粉病,用掃描式電顯觀察,乳化過的葵花油,噴在葉面上,會形成一層薄膜,白粉病菌胞子在膜上不會發芽,而在膜下 的白粉菌絲也會分解掉。這種防治法不但便宜,而且對人畜無害,也不會造成環境污染。(已發表於J.Phytopathology)。

5.發現台灣柑桔砧木的根,原本對疫 病菌都有抗性,為何根部受此菌的為害會那麼嚴重。試驗證明台灣柑桔普遍受立枯病(greening)細菌的感染,而這種細菌的感染,會使砧木根部對疫病菌 的抗性會大大的減弱。以前沒有人報告過,不易培養的細菌(fastidious bacteria)會促使根部病害更嚴重。我們也發現柑桔根受疫病菌感染,也會促使立枯病變成更嚴重。(已發表於Europ. J. Plant Pathol.)。

6.發現蕨類植物的孢子,雖然大小同 真菌孢子一樣,卻不受土壤靜菌作用(soil microbiostasis)的影響。只要有光及水份,蕨類孢子就能在土壤裡自由發芽,而真菌、放線菌及細菌的孢子都不能在土壤裡面發芽。這是以前未被 發現過的現象。(已發表於Am. Fern J.)。

7.發展一簡單純化受細菌及?所污染 的真菌菌落。真菌菌落受細菌及?的污染很普遍。方法是根據觀察,細菌生長及?的活動只限於固體培養基的表面,而真菌菌絲則能穿透培養基,長到底部。所以把 受污染菌落翻倒於白紙上,再從菌落底部,削一小塊,移到新鮮固體培養基,就可以得到沒有細菌及?的真菌菌落。(已發表於J. Phytopathology,很多國家的研究人員寫信來要這篇文章的抽印本)。

8.發現茶枝枯病在自然界的接種源。 在台灣,由Macrophoma theicola 所引起的枝枯病,是茶葉最重要的病害,但在自然界一直找不到此病原菌的來源。最 近在許多茶園發現,得枝枯病的死枝條上,有下陷的長斑(canker),病斑內有小黑點,把這部位剪下,放在低溫潮濕的環境,黑點就會擠出與M. theicola 分生孢子一樣大小及形狀的孢子團,這些孢子所產生的菌落與M. theicola 完全一樣,把所分 離的菌接到健康茶枝,可形成枝枯,也可以產生下陷長斑。由此可知枝枯病的接種源是死枝條上的分生孢子囊,所以要減輕枝枯病的發生,就必須去除死枝條。(已 發表於J. Phytopathology)。

9.應Plant Disease 主編的邀請,與張東柱主任及安寶貞組長一起發表一篇Feature Article。把這幾年來,我們對在台灣所發生的果樹及觀賞樹的褐根病的研究成果,介紹給國際植病界。(已經發表在Plant Disease)。

10.應Plant Disease 主編的邀請,與黃新川所長一起發表一篇Feature Article。把這幾年來,我們在台灣,應用香蕉組織培養所引起的變異(somaclonal variation),成功篩選出抗香蕉黃葉病的優良品種的經過,以及抗病品種推廣給農民,並把所生產的香蕉,成功外銷到日本的過程,介紹給國際植病界。 (已經發表在Plant Disease)。

11.在台灣的四季自然保護森林的土 裡,分離到一支以前未被發現過的腐霉菌(Pythium)。其特點是以菌絲為游走子囊,且卵孢子特別的小。我們把它命為Pythium sukuiense。因為是在保護林的土裡發現,可能是台灣本土特有的種。(已發表在Mycologia)。

12.夏威夷原住民用以治療胃及肝疾 病的藥用植物mamaki (Pipturus albidus),一般生長在山上,森林周圍,或水溝旁邊。這種植物往往長不好,且易 死掉。我們發現這是得了由Botryosphaeria ribis 所引起的枝枯病的原故。這是一種新的病害。(已發表於Can. J. PlantPathology)。

13.解決蘭花雜草問題。夏威夷種蘭 花最嚴重的問題是蕨類雜草,每盆蘭花從幼苗到開花,工人要拔好多次的草,增加很大的成本。經實地觀察與試驗,我們發現農民因為引屋頂的雨水到蓄水池,而把 蕨類孢子洗下,再用池裡的水來灌溉時,就把孢子散播到花盆內。了解來源後將池內水過濾後再用來灌溉,蕨類雜草的問題就解決了。(己發表於Crop Protection)。

14.發展一新的防治福壽螺的方法。 福壽螺對水稻幼苗的為害,在亞洲國包括台灣,都是很嚴重及棘手的問題。殺螺的農藥對魚及其他生物毒性也很大。我們發現一種蘋果腊的溶劑,可以完全抑制福壽 螺卵的孵化,因而可以有效的防治福壽螺。福壽螺的紅色卵塊都在水面上,所以處理容易,這種溶劑對動物無毒,用量少,也不會造成污染。現正在台灣,日本及韓 國申請專利。(已發表於Crop Protection)。

15.發展一可簡易測知土壤裡那些微 生物能產生脂肪?。把乳化過的葵花油,與固體培基混合,將土壤懸浮液放在其上,長出的微生物菌落週圍有透明圈的,就表示能產生脂肪?,透門圈的大小也表示 產生脂肪?能力的大小。(已發表於Soil Biol. Biochem.)。

16.經我建議並提供試驗方法,由農 藝及植病研究人員合作,以植物尤其是藥用植物的萃取液來防治植物病原菌。試驗結果發現,有好幾種植物的萃取液,對四種不同病菌的孢子發芽,有很強的抑制作 用。而其中的虎杖酒精萃取液,還可有效防治甜瓜的白粉病。(已發表於植病會刊)。

17.牛樟芝的子實體為很貴重的藥 材,因產生子實體不易,因此有人以菌絲體發酵液來代替,但有效成含量不高,有待改進,但因菌株少,無法篩選。我們因此研發出,可使菌株產生變異的方法。把 牛樟芝的細胞核轉殖到不同株系的原生質體,再生的菌株所形成的菌落,與父母本菌落在形態及生理方面有很大的差異,可供將來篩選能產生大量有效成份的菌株。 (已被Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 接受發表)。

18.証明疫病菌(Phytophthora) 的配對型(Mating type) 是由粒線體基因所控制。一般都認為疫病菌的配對型是由細胞核基因所控制。我們將A1 的細胞核轉殖到A2 的原生質體,再生的菌落有的是A1,有的是A2,因此証明疫病菌的配對型是由粒線體基因,而不是細胞核基因所控制。(已被Can. J. Microbiol. 接受發表)

 

相關著作:

A、學術期刊論文

1. Ko, W. H., and J. L. Lockwood. 1967. Soil fungistasis: relation to fungal spore nutrition. Phytopathology 57: 894-901.

2. Ko, W. H., and J. L. Lockwood. 1968. Accumulation and concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides by microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 1075-1078.

3. Ko, W. H., and J. L. Lockwood. 1968. Conversion of DDT and DDD in soil and the effect of these compounds on soil microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 1069-1073.

4. Ko, W. H. 1968. Evaluation of two suggested factors determining the speificity of PCNB. Phytopathology 58: 1715-1716.

5. Ko, W. H., and J. D. Farley. 1969. Conversion of PCNB to PCA on soil and the effect of these compounds on soil microorganisms. Phytopathology 59: 64-67.

6. Ko, W. H., and J. L. Lockwood. 1970. Mechanism of lysis of fungal mycelia in soil. Phytopathology 60: 148-154.

7. Ko, W. H., and J. L. Lockwood. 1970. Transfer of 32P and dieldrin among selected microorganisms in soil. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 7: 465-470.

8. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1970. Production of Phospholipases by soil microorganisms.  Soil Sci. 110: 355-358.

9. Ko, W. H. 1971. Direct observation of fungal activities on soil. Phytopathology 61: 437-438.

10. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1971. A selective medium for the quantitative determination of Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Phytopathology 61: 707-710.

11. Ko, W. H. 1971. Biological control of seedling root rot of papaya caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Phytopathology 61: 780-782.

12. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1971. Fungitoxicity in certain Hawaiian soils. Soil Sci. 112: 276-282.

13. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1972. Identification of an Al ion as a soil fungitoxin. Soil Sci. 133: 42-45.

14. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1972. The nature of a volatile inhibitor from certain alkaline soils. Phytopathology 62: 573-575.

15. Ko, W. H., and M. K. Oda. 1972. The nature of control of Rhizoctonia solani by pentachloronitrobenzene in soil. Phytopathology 62: 385-387.

16. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1973. Root rot of ohia (Metrosideros collina subsp. polymorpha) caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Dis. Rep. 57: 383-384.

17. Kadooka, J. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1973. Production of chlamydospores by Phytophthora palmivora in culture media. Phytopathology 62: 559-562.

18. Ko, W. H., L. L. Chase, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1973. A microsyringe method for determining concentration of fungal propagules. Phytopathology 63: 1206-1207.

19. Ko, W. H., and L. L. Chase. 1973. Aggregation of zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 78: 79-82.

20. Ko, W. H., J. E. Hunter, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1973. Rhizoctonia disease of Queensland maple seedlings. Plant Dis. Rep. 57: 907-909.

21. Kratky, B. A., and W. H. Ko. 1974. A virgin-soil technique for controlling bacterial wilt of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Plant Dis. Rep. 58: 86-87.

22. Ko, W. H., and M. J. Chan. 1974. Aggregation of Phytophthora capsici zoospores and their interaction with zoospores of P. palmivora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 80: 549-551.

23. Hunter, J. E., W. H. Ko, R. K. Kunimoto, and T. Higaki. 1974. A foliar disease of Anthurium seedlings caused by Aphelenchoides fragarias. Phytopathology 64: 267-268.

24. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1974. Effect of motility of Phytophthora palmivora zoospores on disease severity in papaya seedlings and substrate colonization in soil.  Phytopathology 64: 426-428.

25. Hora, F. K., and W. H. Ko. 1974. Effect of forestation on soil fungitoxicity. Soil Sci. 117: 232-235.

26. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1974. Deficiency of inorganic nutrients as a contributing factor to ohia decline. Phytopathology 64: 891-896.

27. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1974. Factors affecting the activity of a volatile fungistatic substance in certain alkaline soils. Phytopathology 64: 1042-1043.

28. Ko, W. H., and M. J. Chan. 1974. Infection and colonization potential of sporangia, zoospores, and chlamydospores of Phytophthora palmivora in soil. Phytopathology 64: 1307-1309.

29. Ko, W. H., F. K. Hora, and E. Herlicska. 1974. Isolation and identification of a volatile fungistatic substance from alkaline soil. Phytopathology 64: 1398-1400.

30. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1974. Germination of Calonectria crotalariae conidia and ascospores on soil. Mycologia 66: 1053-1055.

31. Wang, D. N., and W. H. Ko. 1975. Relationship between deformed-fruit disease of papaya and boron deficiency. Phytopathology 65: 445-447.

32. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1975. A technique for direct observation of nematode trapping by fungi on soil. Mycologia 67: 420-423.

33. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1975. Continuous versus limited growth of fungi.  Mycologia 67: 326-366.

34. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1975. The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia declines. Plant Dis. Rep. 59: 392-395.

35. Ko, W. H., H. H. Lin, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1975. A simple method for determining efficacy and weatherability of fungicide on the foliage. Phytopathology 65: 1023-1025.

36. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Hora. 1975. Evaluation of the use of charcoal in the study of soil fungistasis. Phytopathology 65: 1031-1032.

37. Hwang, S. C. and W. H. Ko. 1975. A medium for enumeration and isolation of Calonectria crotalariae from soil. Phytopathology 65: 1036-1037.

38. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko and M. Aragaki. 1975. A simplified method for sporangium production by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Mycologia 67: 1233-1234.

39. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1976. Biology of conidia, ascospores, and microsclerotia of Calonectria rotalariae in soil. Phytopathology 66: 51-54.

40. Kliejunas, J. T., and W. H. Ko. 1976. Association of Phytophthora cinnamomi with ohia decline on the island of Hawaii. Phytopathology 66: 116-121.

41. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1976. Rootlet necrosis of macadamia caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Dis. Rep. 60: 510-512.

42. Kliejunas, J. T. and W. H. Ko. 1976. Dispersal of Phytophthora cinnamomi on the island of Hawaii. Phytopathology 66: 457-460.

43. Ko, W. H., J. T. Kliejunas, and J. T. Shimooka. 1976. Effect of agar on inhibition of spore germination by chemicals. Phytopathology 66: 363-366.

44. Kunimoto, R. K., M. Aragaki, J. E. Hunter and W. H. Ko. 1976. Phytophthora capsici, corrected name for cause of Phytophthora blight for macadamia racemes. Phytopathology 66: 546-548.

45. Kunimoto, R. K., P. J. Ito, and W. H. Ko. 1977. Mucor rot of guava fruits caused by Mucor hiemalis. Trop. Agric. 54: 185-187.

46. Ko, W. H., R. K. Kunimoto, and I. Maedo. 1977. Root decay caused by Kretzschmaria clavus: Its relation to macadamia decline. Phytopathology 67: 18-21.

47. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Chow. 1977. Characteristics of bacteriostasis in natural soils. J. Gen. Microbiol. 102: 295-298.

48. Ko, W. H., and F. K. Chow. 1978. Soil fungistasis: role of volatile inhibitors in two soils. J. Gen. Microbiol. 104: 75-78

49. Hwang, S. C. and W. H. Ko. 1978. Quantitative studies of Phytophthora cinnamomi in decline and healthy ohia forests. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 70: 312-315.

50. Ko, W. H., H. S. Chang, H. J. Su, C. C. Chen, and L. S, Leu. 1978. Peronophythoraceae, a new family of Peronosporales. Mycologia 70: 380-384.

51. Hwang, S. C. and W. H. Ko. 1978. Biology of chlamydospores, sporangia, and zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi in soil. Phytopathology 68: 726-731.

52. Ko, W. H., H. S. Chang and H. J. Su. 1978. Isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi from Taiwan as evidence for an Asian origin of the species. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 71: 496-499.

53. Ko, W. H. 1978. Heterothallic Phytophthora: evidence for hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 107: 15-18.

54. Sun, E. J., H. Su, and W. H. Ko. 1978. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubans race 4 from soil or host tissue by cultural characters. Phytopathology 68: 1672-1673.

55. Su, H. J., W. H. Ko, T. Y. Chuang, M. T. Huang, and S. C. Hwang. 1978. Etiological studies on marginal scorch of banana, with special reference to air-polluted fluoride associated with the disease. Taiwan Banana Res. Inst. Special Pub. No. 21: 1-21.

56. Ito, P. J., R. K. Kunimoto, and W. H. Ko. 1979. Transmission of Mucor rot of guava fruits by three species of fruit flies. Trop. Agric. 56: 49-52.

57. Ko, W. H. 1979. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasiae on the island of Hawaii. Mycologia 71: 434-437.

58. Ko, W. H. 1979. A method for production of perithecial stromata by xylariaceous fungi.  Mycologia 71: 441-443.

59. Ko, W. H. and H. S. Chang. 1979. Phytophthora katsurae, a new name for P. castaneae.  Mycologia 71: 840-844.

60. Chuang, T. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1979. Propagule size: its value in the prediction of inoculums density and infection potential in soil. Pages 35-38 in: B. Schippers and W. Gams, eds. Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens. Academic Press, London.

61. Chuang, T. Y. and W. H. Ko. 1979. A microliter syringe method for counting bacteria.  Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 45: 507-508.

62. Kratky, B. A., and W. H. Ko. 1980. Transitory yellowing of Chinese cabbage. HortScience 15: 75.

63. Ann, P. J., and W, H. Ko.1980. Oospore germination of Peronophythora litchii.  Mycologia 72: 611-614.

64. Ko, W. H. 1980. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 116: 459-463.

65. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1980. Agarose medium for bioassay of antimicrobial substances. Phytopathology 70: 764-766.

66. Ko, W. H., and C. K. Arakawa. 1980. Oospore germination of Phytophthora katsurae.  Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jpn. 21: 215-219.

67. Fujii, J. K., W. H. Ko, and K. M. Kanegawa. 1980. Effect of organic amendment on longevity of Coptotermis formosanas in soil. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 17: 353-357.

68. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1980. Phytophthora insolita, a new species from Taiwan.  Mycologia 72: 1180-1185.

69. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1980. A simple medium for selective isolation and enumeration of soil actinomycetes. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 46: 634-638.

70. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1980. Guava fruit firm rot induced by bruising. HortScience 15: 722-723.

71. Ko, W. H. 1980. Sexuality, evolution and origin of Phytophthora. Plant Prot. Bull. 22: 141-151.

72. Kratky, B. A., W. J. Ko, R. T. Nakano, Y. N. Tamimi, J. E. Bowen, and H. Y. Mishima.  1981. A new yellow disease of Chinese cabbage in Hawaii, Page 143-150, in: N. S. Talekar and T. D. Griggs, eds. Chinese cabbage. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center. Tainan, Taiwan.

73. Ko, W. H., J. Y. Uchida, R. K. Kunimoto, and M. Aragaki. 1981. Collar rot and leaf spot of leea caused by Calonectria crotalariae. Plant Dis. 65: 621.

74. Yu, J. Y., H. S. Chang, and W. H. Ko. 1981. Factors affecting the induction of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora parasitica by P. colocasiae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 123: 249-252.

75. Chuang, T. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1981. Propagule size: its relation to population density of microorganisms in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13: 185-190.

76. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1981. Hormone production and reception among different isolates of Phytophthora parasitica and P. palmivora. Mycologia 73: 440-444.

77. Chuang, T. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1981. Determination of size-number relationships among living microorganisms in soil by selective media. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 22: 131-136.

78. Ko, W. H. 1981. Reversible change of mating type in Phytophthora parasitica. J. Gen. Microbiol. 125: 451-454.

79. Ko, W. H., W. C. Ho, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1982. Relation of Kretzschmaria clavus to hypoxyloid stromata on diseased macadamia tissues. Phytopathology 72: 1357-1358.

80. Ko, W. H. 1982. Biological control of Phytophthora root rot of papaya with virgin soil.  Plant Dis. 66: 446-448.

81. Ko, W. H. 1982. Effects of nutritional factors on chemical and soil microbiostasis.  HITAHR Research Series 12: 1-55.

82. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1982. Characteristics of soil microbiostasis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14: 589-593.

83. Ko, W. H., R. K. Kunimoto, and W. T. Nishijima. 1982. Fruit rot of guava caused by Phytophthora citricola. Plant Dis. 66: 854-855.

84. Ko, W. H., J. K. Fujii, and K. M. Kanegawa. 1982. The nature of soil pernicious to Coptotermes formosanus. J. Invert. Pathol. 39: 38-40.

85. Ko, W. H., and W. C. Ho. 1983. Screening soils for suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium splendens. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 49: 1-9.

86. Chuang, T. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1983. Propagule size: its relation to longevity and reproductive capacity. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15: 269-274.

87. Kao, C. W., and W. H. Ko. 1983. Narure of suppression of Pythium splendesns in a pasture soil in South Kohala, Hawaii. Phytopathology 73: 1248-1289.

88. Ko, W. H., and W. C. Ho. 1983. Reassessment of apparent sterol requirement for sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 49: 316-321.

89. Ko, W. H. 1983. Isolation and partial characterization of α hormones produced by Phytophthora parasitica. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 1397-1401.

90. Ko, W. H. 1983. Suppressive soils in Hawaii. Plant Prot. Bull. 25:205-211.

91. Tsai, W. H., and W. H. Ko. 1983. A transitory cottony variant of Rhizoctonia solani from  rice. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 49: 467-470.

92. Huang, J. W., S. K. Sun, and W., H. Ko. 1983. A medium for chlamydospore formation in Fusarium. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 49: 704-708.

93. Kobayashi, N., and W. H. Ko. 1983. Screening of Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil in Hawaii Islands and their mechanism of suppressiveness. Soil Microorg. 25: 1~8.

94. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1984. Blossom blight of litchi in Taiwan caused by Peronophythora litchii. Plant Dis. 68: 826.

95. Chang, H. S., I. M. Shu, and W. H. Ko. 1984. Hormone production and reception among isolates of Phytophthora melonis from Taiwan. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 50: 27-30.

96. Aragaki, W., W. J. Apt, R. K. Kunimoto, W. H. Ko, and J. Y. Uchida. 1984. Nature and control of anthurium decline. Plant Dis. 68: 509-511.

97. Ko, W. H., and W. H. Ho. 1984. Soil microbiostasis. Pages 175-184, in Soilborne Crop Diseases in Asia, J. Bay- Peterson, ed. FFTC Book Series No. 26. 240 p.

98. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1985. Soil mocrobiostasis: effects of environmental and edaphic factors. Soil Biol Biochem. 17: 167-170.

99. Ko, W. H., and K. A. Nishijima. 1985. Nature of suppression of Phytophthora capsici in a Hawaiian soil. Phytopathology 75: 683-685.

100. Kobayashi, N., and W. H. Ko. 1985. Nature of suppression of Rhizoctonia solani in Hawaiian soils. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 84: 691-694.

101. Ko, W. H. 1985. Natural suppression of soilborne plant disease. Plant Prot. Bull. 27: 171-178.

102. Ko, W. H., and P. J. Ann. 1985. Phytophthora humicola, a new species from soil of the citrus orchard in Taiwan. Mycologia 77: 631-636.

103. Kobayashi, N., and W. H. Ko. 1985. Pythium splendens-suppressive soils from different islands of Hawaii. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17: 889-891.

104. Ko, W. H. 1985. Stimulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum by phospholipids. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 2591-2594.

105. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1985. Variants of Phytophthora cinnamomi extend the known limits of the species. Mycologia 77: 946-950.

106. Ko, W. H., C. J. Lee, and H. J. Su. 1986. Chemical regulation of mating type in Phytophthora parasitica. Mycologia 78: 134-136.

107. Kao, C. W., and W. H. Ko. 1986. Suppression of Pythium splendens in a Hawaiian soil by calcium and microorganisms. Phytopathology 76: 215-220.

108. Kao, C. W., and W. H. Ko. 1986. The role of calcium and microorganisms in suppression of cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium splendens in a Hawaiian soil. Phytopathology 76: 221-225.

109. Su, H. J., S. C. Hwang, and W. H. Ko. 1986. Fusarial wilt of Cavendish bananas in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 70:814-818. (Feature Article).

110. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1986. A rapid method for screening macadamia seedlings for resistance to Kretzschmaria clavus. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 52: 336-337.

111. Ko, W. H., J. Tomita, and R. L. Short. 1986. Two natural hoists of Kretzschmaria clavus in Hawaiian forests. Plant Pathol. 35: 254-255.

112. Ann, P. J., C. W. Kao, and W. H. Ko. 1986. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasiae in Taiwan. Mycopathologia 93: 193-194.

113. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1986. Microbiostasis by nutrient deficiency shown in natural and synthetic soils. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: 2807-2815.

114. Ko, W. H. 1986. Sexual reproduction of Pythium aphanidermatum: stimulation by phospholipids. Phytopathology 76: 1159-1160.

115. Powell, C. R., and W. H. Ko. 1986. Screening for antagonistic plants for control of Phytophthora palmivora in soil. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 52: 817-824.

116. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1987. Somaclonal variation of bananas and screening for resistance to Fusarium wilt. Pages 151-156, in: G. J. Persley and E. A. Delanghee, eds. Banana and Plantain Breeding Strategies. ACIR. Canberra, Australia.

117. Chen, J. S., F. M. Thseng, and W. H. Ko. 1987. Twig die-back of tea caused by Macrophoma theicola in Taiwan. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 53: 198-202.

118. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Hormonal heterthallism in Phytophthora parasitica: a novel mode of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 2895-2992.

119. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Induction of oospore germination of Phytophthora parasitica. Phytopathology 78: 335-338.

120. Ko, W. H. 1988. Hormonal heterothallism and homothallism in Phytophthora. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 26: 57-73.

121. Su, C. Y., S. S. Tzean, and W. H. Ko. 1988. Beauveria bassiana as the lethal factor in a Taiwanese soil pernicious to potato weevil, Cylas formicarius. J. Invest. Pathol. 52: 195-197.

122. Chuang, T. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Rhizoctonia solani-suppressive soils: detection by chlamydospore germination. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 54: 158-163.

123. Ho, W. C., L. L. Chern, and W. H. Ko. 1988. Pseudomonas solanacearum-suppressive soils in Taiwan. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20: 489-492.

124. Huang, J. W., S. K. Sun, and W. H. Ko. 1988. Characteristics of inhibition of a Taiwanese soil suppressive to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani. J. Phytopathol.123: 165-173.

125. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Root rot of macadamia caused by Ganoderma lucidum and Kretzschmaria clavus in Taiwan. J. Agric. Res. China 37: 424-429.

126. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Mutants of Cavendish banana resistant to race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Plant Prot. Bull. 30: 386-392.

127. Chern, L. L., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Characteristics of inhibition of suppressive soil created by monoculture with radish in the presence of Rhizoctonia solani. J. Phytopathol. 126: 237-245.

128. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Effect of cholroneb and ethanol on mating type of Phytophthora parasitica and P. cinnamomi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 30: 207-210.

129. Ko, W. H., and C. W. Kao. 1989. Evidence for the role of Calcium in reducing root disease incited by Pythium spp. Pages 205-217, in: A. W. Engelhard, ed. Soilborne Plant Pathogens: Management of Diseases with Macor- and Microelements. APS Press. St Paul, Minnesota.

130. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Improvement of fruit quality of Cavendish banana mutants resistant to race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Plant Prot. Bull. 31: 131-138.

131. Ko, W. H., and S. S. Shiroma. 1989. Distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi -suppressive soil in nature. J. Phytopathol. 127: 75-80.

132. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Survey of enzyme activity on solid media in Phytophthora. Can. J. Bot. 68: 139-143.

133. Chen, J. S., F. M. Thseng, and W. H. Ko. 1990. Improvement of survival and subsequent growth of tea cutting. HortScience 25: 305-306.

134. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Tissue culture plantlets as a source of resistance to fusarial wilt of Cavendish banana. Pages 345-353, in: D. Hornby, ed. Biological Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens. C. A. B. International. Wallingford, Oxon.

135. Ann. P. J., R. Kunimoto, and W. H. Ko. 1990. Phytophthora wilt of carnation in Taiwan and Hawaii. Plant Port. Bull. 32: 145-157.

136. Chang, T. T, and W. H. Ko. 1990. Effect of metalaxyl on mating type of Phytophthora infestans and P. parasitica. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 56: 194-198.

137. Ann. P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Growth rate and colony morphology of progenies of zoospores and selfed oospores of Phytophthora parasitica. Mycologia 82: 693-697.

138. Chang, T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Resistance to fungicides and antibiotics in Phytophthora parasitica: genetic nature and use in hybrid determination. Phytopathology 80: 1414-1421.

139. Hwang, S. C., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Selection of improved Cavendish banana mutants resistant to race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Acta Horticulturae 275: 417-423.

140. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1991. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction and mating type change in heterothallic Pythium splendens. Mycol. Res. 95: 452-456.

141. Chang. T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1991. Factors affecting germination of oospores of Phytophthora infestans. J. Phytopathol. 133: 29-35.

142. Ko, W. H., S. C. Hwang, and F. M. Ku. 1991. A new technique for storage of meristem-tip cultures of “Cavendish” banana. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 25: 179-183.

143. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1991. Quick decline of macadamia trees: association with Nectria rugulosa. Plant Prot. Bull. 33: 204-209.

144. Chang, T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1991. Inheritance of isozyme production and sexual reproduction in Phytophthora infestans. Can J. Bot. 70: 634-638.

145. Ko. W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1991. Quick decline of macademia trees: association with Xylaria arbuscula. Plant Pathol. 40: 643-644.

146. Ann, P. J., Ko, W. H., and Kao, C. W. 1991. Disease controls of soil-borne Phytophthora and their suppressive soils in Taiwan. Plant Pathol. Bull. 33: 142-147.

147. Chang, T. T., and Ko, W. H. 1992. Variation in growth rate and colony morphology of Phytophthora parasitica induced by metalaxyl. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 58: 72-77.

148. Ko, W. H. 1992. Biological control of plant pathogens in the tropics. Pages 31-35, in: P. A. C. Ooi, G. S. Lim and P. S. Teng, eds. Biological Control: Issues in the Tropics. Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

149. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1992. Survey of antibiotic resistance and dependence in Phytophthora. Mycologia 84: 82-86.

150. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1992. Decline of longan trees: association with brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathol. Bull. 1: 19-25.

151. Zhou, X. G., Z. Y. Zhu, C. P. Lu, S. J. Wang, and W. H. Ko. 1992. Phytophthora cinnamomi in Shanghai and its possible origin. Mycopathologia 120: 29-32.

152. Chang, T. T., X. Y. Yang, and W. H. Ko. 1992. A sensitive method for detecting production of extracellular enzymes by fungi. Mycologia 84: 923-926.

153. Lim, T. K., G. F. Chung, and W. H. Ko. 1992. Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense. Plant Pathol. Bull. 1: 147-152.

154. Ko, W. H. 1992. Phytophthora root rot of papaya. Pages 300-307. In: H. S. Chaube, U.S. Singh and A. N. Nukhopadhyay, eds. Plant diseases of international importance. Vol. III, Diseases of fruit crops. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

155. Chang, T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1993. Evidence of absence of hybridization in crosses between Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora parasitica. Mycol. Res. 97: 675-678.

156. Yu. M. Q., and W. H. Ko. 1993. Simple method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative studies of fungal behavior in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 699-703.

157. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1993. Two widely accessible media for growth and reproduction of Phytophthora and Pythium species. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 59: 2323-2325.

158. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1993. Distribution of mating types and the nature of survival of Pythium splendens in soil. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 25: 839-842.

159. Chern, L. L., and W. H. Ko. 1993. Effect of light on hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora parasitica. Can. J. Bot. 71: 1672-1674.

160. Hwang S. C., Ko W. H., and C. P. Chao. 1994. GCTCV-215-1: A promising Cavendish clone resistant to Race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Plant Prot. Bull. 36: 281-291.

161. Zhang, K. M., F. C, Zhang, Y. D. Li, P. J. Ann, and W. H. Ko. 1994. Isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae from Hainan Island in China: evidence suggesting an Asian origin of this species. Mycologia 86:108-112.

162. Chern, L. L., and W. H. Ko. 1994. Effect of high temperature on physiological processes leading to sexual reproduction in Phytophthora parasitica. Mycologia 86: 416-420.

163. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1994. Survey of root rot of anthurium. Plant. Pathol. Bull. 3: 18-23.

164. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1994. Factors affecting oospore germination of heterothallic Pythium splendens. Mycologia 86: 777-780.

165. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunomoto. 1994. Quick decline of macadamia tress: association with Phytophthora capsici. J. Phytopathol. 141: 386-389.

166. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1994. Growth rate and antibiotic sensitivities of conidium and selfed-oospore progenies of heterothallic Pythium splendens. Can. J. Bot. 72: 1709-1712.

167. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1994. An asexual variant of Phytophthora insolita. Can J. Microbiol. 40: 810-815.

168. Ko, W. H. 1994. An alternative possible origin of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans outside Mexico. Phytopathology 84: 1224-1227.

169. Shim, J. O., M. Q. Yu, and W. H. Ko. 1995. Agarose medium for germination of oospores of Phytophthora cactorum. J. Phytopathol. 143: 223-225.

170. Guo. L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1995. Continuing variation in successive asexual generations of Pythium splendens following sexual reproduction. Mycol. Res. 99: 1339-1344.

171. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1996. Nature of enhanced severity of anthurium root rot by diuron treatment for weed control. J. Phytopathol. 144: 7-11.

172. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1996. Quick decline of macadamia tress: association with Phellinus gilvus. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 62: 37-39.

173. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1996. Mating type change in Pythium splendens induced by selfing. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 62: 1-3.

174. Chern, L. L., W. H. Ko, and C. S. Tang. 1996. Factors affecting yields of hormones of Phytophthora parasitica obtained by adsorption. Can. J. Miocorobiol. 42: 172-176.

175. Yu, M. Q., and W. H. Ko. 1996. Mating type segregation in Choanephora cucurbitarum following sexual reproduction. Can. J. Bot. 74: 919-923.

176. Sun, P. M. H., S. C. Hwang, and W. H. Ko. 1996. GCTCV-105, A new Cavendish somaclone highly resistant to Fusarium wilt with commercial potential. Plant Prot. Bull. 38: 27-37.

177. Kunimoto, R. K., B. C. Bushe, and W. H. Ko. 1996. Blossom blight of kalanchoe caused by Botrytis cinerea. Plant Pathol. Bull. 5: 107-111.

178. Zheng. X. B., and W. H. Ko. 1996. Continuing variation in successive asexual generations of Phytophthora cinnamomi following sexual reproduction. Can. J. Bot. 74: 1181-1185.

179. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 1997. Water agarose medium for studying factors affecting germination of conidia of Ampelomyces quisqualis. Mycol. Res. 101: 422-424.

180. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1997. A simple method for obtaining single-spore isolates of fungi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 38: 41-44.

181. Jee, H. J., C. S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 1997. Stimulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum by phospholipids is not due to sterol contamination Microbiology 143: 1631-1638.

182. Jee, H. J., and W. H. Ko. 1997. Stimulation of sexual reproduction of Phytophthora cactorum and P. parasitica by fatty acids and related compounds. Mycol. Res. 101: 1140-1141.

183. Zhou, Y. C., X. B. Zheng, J. Y. Lu, and W. H. Ko. 1997. Sexuality type change from self-induction to cross-induction in Phytophthora boehmeriae. Mycol. Res. 101: 1047-1050.

184. Zheng, X. B., and W. H. Ko. 1997. Continuing variation in colony morphology and fungicide sensitivity in Phytophthora cinnamomi following exposure to chloroneb. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 38: 177-182.

185. Ko, W. H., S. P. Chen, C. P. Chao, and S. C. Hwang. 1997. Etiology and control of heart rot of banana tissue culture plantlets. Plant Pathol. Bull. 6: 31-36.

186. Yu, M. Q., and W. H. Ko. 1997. Factors affecting germination and the mode of germination of zygospores of Choanephora cucurbitarum. Phytopathology. 145: 357-361.

187. Ko, W. H. 1998. Chemical stimulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora and Pythium. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 39: 81-86.

188. Jee, H. J., and W. H. Ko. 1998. Phytophthora cactorum can synthesize substances needed for sexual reproduction but requires a stress factor to trigger the process. Microbiology. 144: 1071-1075.

189. Wu, R. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1998. A simple method for preservation of serological activity of banana bunchy top virus in diseased tissue. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 64: 34-37.

190. Xu, X. L., and W. H. Ko. 1998. A quantitative confined inoculation method for studies of pathogenicity of fungi on plants. Bot. Bull.Acad. Sin. 39: 187-190.

191. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 1998. Occurrence of parasexual cycle following transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of Phytophthora parasitica. Curr. Genet. 143: 120-123.

192. Lee, I. M., and W. H. Ko. 1998. Phytoplasmas are not associated with quick decline of macadamia trees in Hawaii. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 39: 251-254.

193. Gao, Z. M., X. B. Zheng, J. Y. Lu, and W. H. Ko. 1998. Effect of cultural media on antheridial configuration in Phytophthora boehmeriae. Can. J. Bot. 76: 2077-2179.

194. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1999. Acremonium recifei: a new causal agent of macadamia quick decline. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 21: 42-44.

195. Yu, M. Q., and W. H. Ko. 1999. Azygospore formation following protoplast fusion in Choanephora cucurbitarum. Mycol. Res. 103: 684-688.

196. Ho, W. H., and W. H. Ko. 1999. Temporal distribution of mating types and cultural variation of Phytophthora infestans at the Volcano District on the island of Hawaii.  Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65: 286-292.

197. Yu, M. Q., and W. H. Ko. 1999. The inheritance of mating type and growth rate in Choanephora cucurbitarum. Can. J. Bot. 77: 1178-1184.

198. Chern, L.L., C.S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 1999. Characterization of α hormones of Phytophthora parasitica. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 40: 79-85.

199. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Occurrence of parasexual cycle in Phytophthora parasitica following protoplast fusion. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41: 225-230.

200. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Segregation following interspecific transfer of isolated nuclei between Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 410-416.

201. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Transplantation and subsequent behavior of mitochondria in cells of Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 992-997.

202. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2001. Creation of hybrid vigor through nuclear transplantation in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 47: 662-666.

203. Ko, W. H., and S. S. Ko. 2001. A new twig blight of mamaki (Pipturus albidus) caused by Botryosphaeria ribis. Can J. Plant Pathol. 23: 312-314.

204. Ko, S. S., R. K. Kunimoto, and W. H. Ko. 2001. A simple technique for purifying fungal cultures contaminated with bacteria and mites. J. Phytopathol. 149: 509-510.

205. You, C. P., X. B. Zheng, and W. H. Ko. 2001. Variation resulting from selfing and outcrossing in Phytophthora cactorum. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 64: 169-174.

206. Jee, H. J., C. S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 2002. Characterization of phytochemicals stimulatory to sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum and P. parasitica. Bot Bull. Acad. Sin. 42: 203-210.

207. Ann, P. J., T. T. Chang, and W. H. Ko. 2002. Phellinus noxius brown root rot of fruit and ornamental tress in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 86: 820-826. (Feature article).

208. Ko, W. H., S. Y. Wang, T. F. Hsieh, and P. J. Ann. 2003. Effect of sunflower oil on tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici. J. Phytopathol. 151: 144-148.

209. Ko, W. H. 2003. Long-term storage and survival of three species of Phytophthora in water. J. Gen. Plant. Pathol. 69: 186-188.

210. Ko, W. H. 2003. Germination of fern spores in natural soils. Am. Fern J. 93: 70-75.

211. Wu, H., X. B. Zheng, and W. H. Ko. 2003. Effect of culture origin on chemical stimulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora and Pythium. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 44: 323-328.

212. Ann, P. J., W. H. Ko, and H. J. Su. 2004. Interaction between likubin bacterium and Phytophthora parasitica in citrus hosts. Europ. J. Plant Pathol. 110: 1-6.

213. Ko, W. H., S. Y. Wang, and P. J. Ann. 2004. Pythium sukuiense, a new species from undisturded natural forest in Taiwan. Mycologia 96: 647-649.

214. Hwang, S. C. and W. H. Ko. 2004. Cavendish banana cultivars resistant to fusarium wilt acquired through somaclonal variation in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 88: 580-588. (Feature Article)

215. Zhang, Z. G., Y. Y. Zhang, X. B. Zheng, Y. W. Yang, and W. H. Ko. 2004. Molecular distinctions between Phytophthora capsici and P. tropicalis based on ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA. J. Phytopathol. 152: 358-364.

216. Thseng, F. M., J. S. Chen, and W. H. Ko. 2004. The relationship between branch canker and twig dieback of tea caused by Macrophoma theicola. J. Phytophthol. 152: 423-426.

217. Ko. W. H., I. T. Wang, and P. J. Ann. 2004. Lasiodiplodia theobromae as a causal agent of kumquat dieback in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 88: 1383.

218. Ko. W. H., S. S. Ko, and M. Chen. 2005. Origin and control of fern weeds in orchid production in greenhouses in Hawaii. Crop Prot. 24: 487-490.

219. Wu, D. C., J. Z. Yu, B. H. Chen, C. Y. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2005. Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). Crop Prot. 24: 483-486.

220. Ko, W. H., I. T. Wang, and P. J. Ann. 2005. A simple method for the detection of lipolytic microorganisms in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37: 597-599.

221. Wang, W. M., R. Y. Wu, and W. H. Ko. 2005. Variation and segregation following nuclear transplantation in Antrodia cinnamomea. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46: 217-222.

222. Hsieh, T. F., J. H. Huang, L. J. Hsieh, M. F. Hu, and W. H. Ko. 2005. Antifungal effect of plant extracts on phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Pathol. Bull. 14: 59-66.

223. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2005. Evidence for mitochondrial gene control of mating types in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 51: 934-940.

224. Ann, P. J., J. H. Huang, I. T. Wang, and W. H. Ko. 2006. Pythiogeton zizaniae, a new species associated with based stalk rot of water bamboo in Taiwan. Mycologia 98: 116-120.

225. Chu, Y. L., W. C. Ho, and W. H. Ko. 2006. Effect of Chinese herb extracts on spore germination of Oidium murrayae and nature of inhibitory substance from Chinese rhubarb. Plant Dis. 90: 858-861.

226. Ko, W. H., S. Y. Wang, and P. J. Ann. 2006. The possible origin and relation of Phytophthora katsurae and P. heveae discovered in a protected natural forest in Taiwan. Bot. Stud. 47: 273-277.

227. Ho, W. C., H. J. Su, J. W. Li, and W. H. Ko. 2006. Effect of extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs on spore germination of Alternaria brassicicola, and nature of an inhibitory substance form gallnuts of Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis). Can. J. Plant Pathol. 28: 1-7.

228. Zhang, Z. G., X. B. Zheng, Y. C. Wang, and W. H. Ko. 2007. Evaluation of the rearrangement of taxonomic position of Peronophythora litchii based on partial DNA sequences. Bot. Stud. 48: 79-89.

229. Ho, W. C., T. Y. Wu, H. J. Su, and W. H. Ko. 2007. Effect of oriental medicinal plant extracts on spore germination of Alternaria brassicicola and nature of inhibitory substances from speedweed. Plant Dis. 91: 1621-1624.

230. Ko, W. H. 2007. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Bot. Stud. 48: 365-375.

231. Lin, M. J., and W. H. Ko. 2008. Occurrence of strains of Phytophthora colocasiae in Taiwan with homothallic behavior and its significance. Mycologia 100: 727-734.

232. Ko, W. H., C. C. Su, C. L. Chen, and C. P. Chao. 2009. Control of lethal browning of tissue culture plantlets of Cavendish banana cv. Formosana with ascorbic acid. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 96: 137-141.

233. Ko, W. H. 2009. Nature of slow and quick decline of macadamia trees. Bot. Stud. 50: 1-10.

234. Lin, C. Y., D. C. Wu, J. Z. Yu, B. H. Chen, C. L. Wang and W. H. Ko. 2009. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple. Neotrop. Entomol. 38: 531-536.

235. Liu, T. H., M. J. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2010. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani. New Biotechnol. 27:64-69.

236. Wang, P. H., Y. S. Chen, M. J. Lin, Y. J. Tsou and W. H. Ko. 2010. Severe decline of wax apple trees caused by Fusarium solani in northern Taiwan. Bot. Stud. 51:75-80.

237. Ko, W. H., Y. J. Tsou, Y. M. Ju, H. M. Hsieh and P. J. Ann. 2010. Production of a fungistatic substance by Pseadallescheria boydii isolated from soil amended with vegetable tissues and its significance. Mycopathologia 169: 125-131.

238. Ann, P. J. J. N. Tsai, T. C. Wang, C. H. Chen, M, J, Lin and W. H. Ko. 2010. Reevalution of the report of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans on tomato in Taiwan. Bot. Stud. 51: 203-207.

239. Ko, W. H., Y. J. Tsou, M. J. Lin, and L. L. Chern. 2010. Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases. New Biotechnol. 27: 397-402.

240. Ko, W. H. M. J. Lin, C. Y. Hu, and P. J. Ann. 2010. Aquaperonospora taiwanensis gen. et sp. Nov. in Peronophythoraceae of Peronosporales. Bot. Stud. 51: 343-350.

241. Liu T. H., M. J. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2011. Development of artificial conidia for ecological studies of Rhizoctonia solani in soil. New Biotechnol. 28: 86-91.

242. Ko, W. H., C. H. Yang, M. J. Lin, C. Y. Chen, and Y. J. Tsou. 2011. Humicola phialophoroides sp. nov. from soil with potential for biological control of plant diseases. Bot. Stud. 52: 197-202.

243. Chen, Y. T., M. J. Lin, C. H. Yang, and W. H. Ko. 2011. Characterization of fungistatic substance produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil and its significance in nature. New Biotechnol. 28: 679-683.

244. Su, H. J., F. M. Thseng, J. S. Chen, and W. H. Ko. 2011. Production of volatile substances by rhizomorphs of Marasmius crinisequi and its significance in nature. Fungal Div. 49: 199-202.

245. Tsai, Y. N., M. J. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2012. A simple method for production of uniform inoculums of Rhizoctonia solani with strong pathogenicity. Biocat. Agri. Biot. 1: 85-88.

246. Su, H. J., M. J. Lin, Y. J. Tsou, and W. H. Ko. 2012. Pseudallin, a new antibiotic produced by the human pathogenic fungus Pseudallescheria boydii, with ecological significance. Bot. Stud. 53: 239-242.

247. Chern, L. L., H. C. Lin, J. T. Chang, and W. H. Ko. 2013. Activation of systemic resistance in rice against Magnaporthe oryzae by substances produced by Fusarium solani isolated from soil. J. Phytopathol. (in press)

B、研討會論文

1. Ko,W. H. 2003. Interesting microbial phenomena in nature and their application in agriculture. P.1-11. In symposium on Application of Microbial Ecology to Agriculture and Industry, Pingtung, Taiwan.
2. Ko,W. H. 2004. Management of plant diseases without using pesticides in sustainable agriculture. P. 123-132. In the proceeding of the 3rd APEC workshop on Sustainable Agriculture Development, Taichung, Taiwan.

C. Awards & honors:
1984 RUTH ALLEN AWARD of American Phytopathological Society, in recognition of outstanding contributions to hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora.

1990 FELLO WAWARD of the American Phytopathological society.

1997 Japan Society for Promoting Science Fellowship, to give lectures at Tottori University, Hokkaido University, Nagoya University and Gifu University.

1997 Member of the Ninety Fabulous Faculty during the 90 years history of the University of Hawaii.

2004 Governor Linda Lingle of the State of Hawaii proclaimed December 16, 2004 as DR. WEN-HSIUNG KO DAY in recognition of his outstanding achievements in academic, research and public service in the USA and Asia, and his distinguished contributions to Hawaii’s agriculture.

2005 Presented by the President and Members of the Senate of the State of Hawaii “Hawaii State Senate Certificate”in recognition of his nationally and internationally renowned achievements in plant pathology, and his numerous outstanding accomplishments that have benefited the agriculture industry and natural resources of Hawaii.

專利

無患子粒劑及其製法。中華民國發明專 利(I220104)。吳德忠、陳炳輝、林俊義、余志儒、柯文雄。

進行中的研究計畫

可食植物之萃取液及其發酵液防治植物病害之研究, 行政院國家科學委員會(94-2313-B-055-003- ). 2005/1/1 至 2005/12/31

目前研究方向

(a)應用細胞核及粒線體的轉殖研究病原菌致病有性及無性繁殖之機制。

(b)應用土壤微生物以產生二次代謝物,藉以誘導植物抗病性之研究。